Отвори го главното мени

Clostridia е полифилетична класа од коленото Firmicutes, во која спаѓа родот Clostridium и други слични родови. Припадниците на оваа класа се разликуваат од припадниците на класата Bacilli по недостатокот на аеробна респирација. Сите се облигатни анаероби, за кои кислородот е токсичен. Видовите од родот Clostridium се често, но не секогаш, Грам-позитивни (види Halanaerobium hydrogenoformans) и имаат способност да формираат ендоспори.[1] Истражувањата покажуваат дека тие не се монофилетична група, и нивната меѓусебна сродност не е точно утврдена. Моментално, повеќето се класифицирани во еден ред, Clostridiales, но ваквата класификација не е природна и веројатно ќе подлежи на промени во иднина.

Повеќето видови на родот Clostridium се сапрофитски организми кои се распространети во животната средина, а особено во почвите. Сепак, овој род содржи неколку видови кои се патогени за човекот (наведени подолу). Токсините продуцирани од одредени членови на родот Clostridium се меѓу најопасните познати отрови. Примери се токсинот на тетанус (познат како тетаноспазмин) продуциран од C. tetani и ботулинскиот токсин продуциран од C. botulinum. Некои видови се изолирани кај жени кои страдаат од бактериска вагиноза.[2]

Значајни видови од оваа класа вклучува:

Heliobacteria и Christensenella се исто така членови на класата Clostridia.

ЕпидемиологијаУреди

Бидејќи овие бактерии се наоѓаат во почвите и во микрофлората на луѓето и животните, инфекциите предизвикани од некои членови на оваа класа се јавуваат ширум светот. Одбранбениот систем на организмот не штити од овие бактерии, а стекнатиот имунитет е слаб. Clostridia може да се дијагностицираат со препознавање на карактеристиките на лезијата на инфекцијата заедно со Грам боењето на ткивото и бактериската култура. Иако самиот организам нема соодветна одбрана против овие бактерии, тие може да се уништат со помош на антибиотици, како што е пеницилинот.

ФилогенијаУреди

Моментално прифатената таксономија се базира на Листата на имиња на прокариотите со евиденција во номенклатурата (анг. List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature - LPSN)[3] и Националниот центар за биотехнолошки информации (анг. National Center for Biotechnology Information - NCBI)[4] а филогенијата е базирана на 16S рРНК-базираното LTP ослободување 106 од Проектот "Животно дрво на сите видови" (анг. The All-Species Living Tree Project).[5]

  Clostridia s.s.

Peptococcaceae 2





Peptococcaceae 1





Heliobacteriaceae



Peptococcaceae 3





Thermincola


  Negativicutes

Acidaminococcaceae



Veillonellaceae








Peptococcaceae 4





Dethiobacter alkaliphilus



Natranaerobiaceae






Anaerobranca {Clostridiales Family XIV. Incertae Sedis}




Eubacteriaceae




Garciella nitratireducens




Clostridiaceae 3




Clostridiales Family XI. Incertae Sedis [incl. Anaerosphaera aminiphila]





Eubacterium angustum



Proteiniborus ethanoligenes





Clostridiaceae 4 [incl. various Clostridium ssp.]




{{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded| {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0;" valign=top {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} style="border-left:1px solid black; border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;" valign=bottom align=center {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} rowspan=2 style="border: 0; padding: 0;" {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}} {{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}} {{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}- }}
{{Expansion depth limit exceeded|{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}|
}}

{{{Expansion depth limit exceeded}}}




{{Expansion depth limit exceeded|1=Clostridiaceae 2 [incl. various Clostridium ssp.]

2=Peptostreptococcaceae [incl. Clostridiales Family XIX. Incertae Sedis and various Clostridium & Eubacterium spp.]
                            }}









  Clostridiales s.s.


Thermoanaerobacterales Unnamed clade III [incl. Caldicoprobacter]



Clostridiaceae 1 [incl. various Eubacterium spp.]






Gracilibacter thermotolerans



Lutispora thermophila





Ruminococcaceae [incl. Bacteroides cellulosolvens, Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, Gemmiger formicilis, Oscillibacter valericigenes, Saccharofermentans acetigenes and various Clostridium & Eubacterium spp.]



Lachnospiraceae [incl. Anaerosporobacter mobilis, Desulfotomaculum guttoideum, Fusobacterium naviforme, Lactobacillus rogosae, Lactonifactor longoviformis, various Bacteroides, Clostridium, Eubacterium, & Ruminococcus ssp.]










Некласифицирани видови

  • Catabacteraceae ♠ Lau et al. 2007
    • Catabacter hongkongensisLau et al. 2007
  • Christensenellaceae Morotomi et al. 2012
    • Christensenella minuta Morotomi et al. 2012
  • Defluviitaleaceae Jabari et al. 2012
    • Defluviitalea saccharophila Jabari et al. 2012

Забелешка: ♠ Видовите се наоѓаат во NCBI, но не се наведени во LSPN.

НаводиУреди

  1. Baron, Samuel (1996). Medical Microbiology (4th издание). Galveston: Universirt of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  2. Africa, Charlene; Nel, Janske; Stemmet, Megan. Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors Contributing to Vaginal Colonisation. „International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health“ том  11 (7): 6979–7000. doi:10.3390/ijerph110706979. ISSN 1660-4601. PMID 25014248. 
  3. J.P. Euzéby. „Clostridia“. List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Архивирано од изворникот на 2013-01-27. конс. 2011-11-17. 
  4. Sayers и др. „Clostridia“. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. конс. 2011-06-05. 
  5. All-Species Living Tree Project.„16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 (full tree)“ (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. конс. 2011-11-17.