=== Простор ===
All other things being equal, the side which controls more space on the board has an advantage. More space translates into more options, which can be exploited both tactically and strategically. So if all your pieces are developed and you don't see any tactical tricks or a promising long-term plan, try to find a move which will enlarge your influence, particularly in the center.Although in some openings, one player will accept less space for a period of time in order to set up a counterattack in the middlegame. This is one of the concepts behind hypermodern play.
=== Одбрана на фигури ===
In general, it is a good idea to defend your pieces, even if they are not currently attacked. This way, many tactical tricks of the opponent won't work. In fact, this approach has an antecedent in the theory of Aron Nimzowitch who referred to it as "overprotection." Conversely, if you spot undefended pieces of the opponent, you should think about exploiting the situation with a tactical combination.
=== Размена на фигури ===
''Главни статии: [[Мала размена]], [[Жртвена размена]]''
To exchange pieces means to capture a hostile piece and to then allow a piece of the same value to be captured. Often it's the same piece that captured that is now being captured by the opponent. As a general rule of thumb, exchanging pieces eases the task of the defender who typically has less room to operate in.
If you have a material advantage, exchanging pieces is usually desirable, since in the endgame even a single pawn advantage may decide the game.
When playing against stronger players, many beginners attempt to constantly exchange pieces "to simplify matters"; this is a poor strategy. Stronger players are normally relatively stronger in the endgame, whereas during a complicated middlegame, even they can make mistakes.
(Note that "winning the exchange" has a special meaning as mentioned above: winning a rook for a bishop or knight.)
:''Главна статија: [[Состав на пиуни]]''
In the endgame, '''[[passed pawn]]s''', those which cannot be hindered by enemy pawns from [[Promotion (chess)|promotion]], are strong, especially if they are advanced. A [[passed pawn]] on the sixth row is roughly as strong as a knight or bishop and will often decide the game. (Also see [[isolated pawn]], [[doubled pawns]], [[backward pawn]], [[connected pawns]]).
==== Коњи ====
: ''Главна статија: [[Коњ (шах)|Коњ]]''
Knights are easily chased away with pawn moves. Therefore it is important to spot "holes" in the enemy position where a knight cannot be attacked, because the pawns have already moved past. Once such a hole is identified, a knight should be maneuvered to that location. An unchallengeable knight on the fifth row is a strong asset, and a supported knight on the sixth row usually decides the game. Unless there is a good reason for it, knights shouldn't be placed at the borders (and never in the corners) of the board, because there they control far fewer squares and can often be captured.
==== Ловци ====
:''Главни статии: [[Ловец (шах)|Ловец]], [[Фијанкето]]''
A bishop always stays on squares of the colour it started on. This is not a big concern if you still have both bishops, but once one of them is gone, you should keep in mind that you now have a hard time attacking or defending squares of the other colour. If you have only one bishop left, you typically want to move your pawns to squares of the other colour so that they don't block the bishop and so that the enemy pawns are stuck on the right colour and can be attacked.
If you don't see a good square for development of a bishop, you can consider a ''fianchetto'': pawn g2-g3 and bishop f1-g2. This forms a strong defense for the castled king on g1 and the bishop can often exert pressure on the long diagonal h1-a8. After a fianchetto, you should not give up the bishop too easily, because then the holes around the king can easily prove fatal.
To decide whether in a given position a knight or a bishop is more powerful, several aspects have to be taken into account: if the game is "closed" with lots of interlocked pawn formations, the knight will be stronger, because it can hop over the pawns while the bishop is blocked by them. A bishop is also weak if it is permanently blocked by his own pawns, which are arrested on the wrong colour.
In an open game with action on both sides of the board, the bishop will be stronger because of its long range. This is especially true in the endgame, if passed pawns race on opposite sides of the board, the bishop will usually win over the knight here.
An endgame in which the parties have bishops that live on different colours is almost always drawn, even if one side is two pawns ahead.
==== Топови ====
:''Главна статија: [[Топ (шах)|Топ]]''
Rooks are powerful on half-open files -- files which don't contain pawns of your own colour. Rooks on the seventh rank can be very powerful as they attack pawns which can only be defended by other pieces, not by other pawns, and they can lock in the enemy king. A pair of white rooks on the seventh rank (or black on the second rank) is often a sign of a winning position.
In the endgame, if there is a passed pawn which is a candidate for promotion, the rooks, both friend and foe of the pawn, generally belong ''behind'' the pawn rather than in front of it, see [[Tarrasch rule]].
==== Кралица ====