Мирча Елијаде: Разлика помеѓу преработките

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Во октомври 1956 година, се преселил во САД и следната година живеел во [[Чикаго]].<ref name="Biografie in Handoca"/><ref name="vilasanjpaseo"/> [[Јоахим Вах]] го поканил да одржи низа предавања на [[Универзитет во Чикаго|чикашкиот универзитет]].<ref name="McGuire, p.151"/>Се смета дека Елијаде и Вах се основачи на "Чикашката школа" која во основа ги дефинира проучувањата на религиите во втората половина на 20 век.<ref name="Hermeneutics in History">[http://marty-center.uchicago.edu/conferences/wach_eliade/about.shtml Conference on ''Hermeneutics in History: Mircea Eliade, Joachim Wach, and the Science of Religions''], at the [http://marty-center.uchicago.edu/ University of Chicago Martin Marty Center. Institute for the Advanced Study of Religion]; retrieved July 29, 2007</ref> По смртта на Вах, Елијаде е именуван за негова замена и во 1964 година стананува ''Истакнат професор по историја на религиите''.<ref name="Biografie in Handoca"/> Во почетокот на 1954 година, со првото издание на книгата ''[[Вечно враќање(Елијаде)|Вечно враќање]]'', Елијаде постигнува комерцијален успех: книгата доживува неколку изданија под различни наслови и е продадена во над 100,000 примероци.<ref>McGuire, p.151–152</ref>
Во 1966 година, Мирчеа Елијаде станува член на [[Американска академија на уметностите и науките|Американската академија на уметностите и науките]].<ref name="Biografie in Handoca"/> Работел како главен уредник во [[Макмилан Паблишерс]]' на ''ЕнциклопедијЕнциклопедија на религијата'', и во 1968 година, предавал историја на ррелигиитерелигиите на [[калифорнискиот универзитет, Санта Барбара]].<ref name="ReferenceA">Oişteanu, "Mircea Eliade şi mişcarea hippie"</ref> Во тој период Мирчеа Елијаде ја завршува својата ''Историја на религиозните мисли'', која ги групира неговите оригинални толкувања на религиозната историја.<ref name="vilasanjpaseo"/> Патува надвор д САД во [[Марбург]] (1960) и ги посетува [[Шведска]] и [[Норвешка]] (1970).<ref name="Biografie in Handoca"/>
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===Final years and death===
Initially, Eliade was attacked with virulence by the [[Romanian Communist Party]] press, chiefly by ''[[România Liberă]]''—which described him as "the Iron Guard's ideologue, [[Enemy of the people|enemy of the working class]], apologist of Salazar's dictatorship".<ref>''România Liberă'', ''passim'' September–October 1944, in Frunză, p.251</ref> However, the regime also made secretive attempts to enlist his and Cioran's support: [[Haig Acterian]]'s widow, theater director [[Marietta Sadova]], was sent to Paris in order to re-establish contacts with the two.<ref name="tismetern">[[Vladimir Tismăneanu]], ''Stalinism pentru eternitate'' (Romanian translation of ''Stalinism for All Seasons''), [[Polirom]], Iaşi, 2005, p.187, 337. ISBN 973-681-899-3</ref> Although the move was planned by Romanian officials, her encounters were to be used as evidence incriminating her at a February 1960 trial for treason (where [[Constantin Noica]] and [[Dinu Pillat]] were the main defendants).<ref name="tismetern"/> Romania's secret police, the [[Securitate]], also portrayed Eliade as a spy for the British [[Secret Intelligence Service]] and a former agent of the Gestapo.<ref name="zfscriit">Alexandru Popescu, [http://www.zf.ro/articol_109162/alexandru_popescu__ix___scriitorii_si_spionajul.html "Scriitorii şi spionajul" ("Writers and Spying")], in ''[[Ziarul Financiar]]'', January 26, 2007; retrieved November 8, 2007 {{ro icon}}</ref>
He was slowly [[Rehabilitation (Soviet)|rehabilitated]] at home beginning in the early 1960s, under the rule of [[Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej]].<ref>Frunză, p.448–449</ref> In the 1970s, Eliade was approached by the [[Nicolae Ceaușescu]] regime in several ways, in order to have him return.<ref name="vilasanjpaseo"/> The move was prompted by the officially sanctioned nationalism and Romania's claim to independence from the [[Eastern Bloc]], as both phenomena came to see Eliade's prestige as an asset. An unprecedented event occurred with the interview that was granted by Mircea Eliade to poet [[Adrian Păunescu]], during the latter's 1970 visit to Chicago; Eliade complimented both Păunescu's activism and his support for official tenets, expressing a belief that
<blockquote>the youth of Eastern Europe is clearly superior to that of Western Europe. [...] I am convinced that, within ten years, the young revolutionary generation shan't be behaving as does today the noisy minority of [[New Left|Western contesters]]. [...] Eastern youth have seen the abolition of traditional institutions, have accepted it [...] and are not yet content with the structures enforced, but rather seek to improve them.<ref>Eliade, 1970, in [[Paul Cernat]], "Îmblânzitorul României Socialiste. De la Bîrca la Chicago şi înapoi" ("The Tamer of Socialist Romania. From Bîrca to Chicago and Back"), part of Paul Cernat, Ion Manolescu, Angelo Mitchievici, Ioan Stanomir, ''Explorări în comunismul românesc'' ("Forays into Romanian Communism"), [[Polirom]], Iaşi, 2004, p.346</ref></blockquote>
Păunescu's visit to Chicago was followed by those of the nationalist official writer [[Eugen Barbu]] and by Eliade's friend Constantin Noica (who had since been released from jail).<ref name="oscaderea"/> At the time, Eliade contemplated returning to Romania, but was eventually persuaded by fellow Romanian intellectuals in exile (including [[Radio Free Europe]]'s [[Virgil Ierunca]] and [[Monica Lovinescu]]) to reject Communist proposals.<ref name="oscaderea"/> In 1977, he joined other exiled Romanian intellectuals in signing a telegram protesting the repressive measures newly enforced by the Ceauşescu regime.<ref name="smihai"/> Writing in 2007, Romanian anthropologist [[Andrei Oișteanu]] recounted how, around 1984, the Securitate unsuccessfully pressured to become an [[agent of influence]] in Eliade's Chicago circle.<ref name="teodoist">Cristian Teodorescu, [http://cotidianul.ro/index.php?id=11526&art=30480&cHash=19a3e7c987 "Eliade şi Culianu prin ocheanul lui Oişteanu" ("Eliade and Culianu through Oişteanu's Lens")], in ''[[Cotidianul]]'', June 14, 2007; retrieved November 7, 2007 {{ro icon}}</ref>
During his later years, Eliade's fascist past was progressively exposed publicly, the stress of which probably contributed to the decline of his health.<ref name="smihai"/> By then, his writing career was hampered by severe [[arthritis]].<ref name="Şora, Handoca"/> The last academic honors bestowed upon him were the [[Académie française|French Academy]]'s [[Bordin Prize]] (1977) and the title of ''[[Honorary degree|Doctor Honoris Causa]]'', granted by the [[University of Washington]] (1985).<ref name="Biografie in Handoca"/>
Mircea Eliade died at the [[Bernard Mitchell Hospital]] in April 1986. Eight days previously, he suffered a [[stroke]] while reading [[Emil Cioran]]'s ''Exercises of Admiration'', and had subsequently lost his speech function.<ref name="ipcmahapar"/> Four months before, a fire had destroyed part of his office at the [[Meadville Lombard Theological School]] (an event which he had interpreted as an [[omen]]).<ref name="smihai"/><ref name="ipcmahapar"/> Eliade's Romanian disciple [[Ioan Petru Culianu]], who recalled the scientific community's reaction to the news, described Eliade's death as "a ''[[Paranirvana|mahaparanirvana]]''", thus comparing it to the passing of [[Gautama Buddha]].<ref name="ipcmahapar"/> His body was [[Cremation|cremated]] in Chicago, and the funeral ceremony was held on University grounds, at the [[Rockefeller Chapel]].<ref name="Biografie in Handoca"/><ref name="ipcmahapar"/> It was attended by 1,200 people, and included a public reading of Eliade's text in which he recalled the [[epiphany (feeling)|epiphany]] of his childhood—the lecture was given by novelist [[Saul Bellow]], Eliade's colleague at the University.<ref name="ipcmahapar"/> His grave is located in [[Oak Woods Cemetery]].<ref>[http://adevarul.ro/news/eveniment/mae-repatrierea-cioran-eliade-brancusi-romania-diminua-semnificativ-afluxul-turisti-1_50ad0f8d7c42d5a6638e1191/index.html "MAE: Repatrierea lui Cioran, Eliade şi Brâncuşi în România ar diminua semnificativ afluxul de turişti" ("Foreign Affairs Ministry: Repatriation to Romania of Cioran, Eliade and Brâncuşi Would Significantly Diminish Tourist Arrivals")], in ''[[Adevărul]]'', April 11, 2011; retrieved May 21, 2014 {{ro icon}}</ref>